Gnowangerup, named as the place of the mallee fowl in the Aboriginal Noongar language, is a town located 61 kilometres (38 mi) south-east of Katanning in the Great Southern region of Western Australia. The townsite was first gazetted in 1908 under the spelling of Ngowangerupp. Local dissatisfaction with this spelling led to it being altered to Gnowangerup in 1913.
The local Agricultural Hall was opened on 20 July 1910 by Arnold Piesse, MLA for the Katanning electorate.
A branch railway from Tambellup was open for service to Gnowangerup on 1 July 1912. It was extended to Ongerup on 6 January 1913. Train services east of Gnowangerup ceased on 13 October 1957.
The name of the townsite is Aboriginal, being derived from nearby Gnowangerup Creek and Spring, both names being first recorded in 1878. The name means "place where the mallee hen (Gnow) nests".
The surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops. The town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling.