Karlgarin is a town located 321 kilometres (199 mi) south-east of Perth in the eastern Wheatbelt region of Western Australia. A small traditional farming town, in 2010 Karlgarin made national papers, as the poorest town in Western Australia, with an average of $34,054 taxable income. 
The first European to visit the area was Surveyor General John Septimus Roe who passed through in 1848. He recorded the name "Carlgarin" as the name of a nearby hill. Karlgarin is an Aboriginal word that is thought to mean "fire hill". Karlgarin was selected as a soldier settlement site and a declaration of a townsite was sought in 1924. It was not until 1930 that the railway came to the area. The townsite was gazetted in 1931.