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Gilgandra is a country town located in the central west region of New South Wales, Australia, and services the surrounding agricultural area where wheat is grown extensively, together with other cereal crops, and sheep and beef cattle are raised. Sitting at the junction of the Newell, Oxley and Castlereagh highways, the town is located in a wide bend of the Castlereagh River downstream from Mendooran and the river's source near Coonabarabran, and upstream of Gulargambone and Coonamble. It is known as the town of windmills and the home of the 'Coo-ees', and is a gateway to the Warrumbungles National Park. It is 432 km north-west of Sydney (about six hours' driving time), and is located approximately halfway on the inland route from Melbourne to Brisbane. The town is the administrative seat for the Gilgandra Shire.
The name Gilgandra is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning "long waterhole". The Castlereagh River is frequently dry or with only a small stream in the wide riverbed, but a large permanent waterhole 100 yards long and 12 feet deep existed along the river near where the township developed, and for many years subsequently. This waterhole was the source of the town's name.
At the 2016 census the population of Gilgandra township was 2,600. In the wider Gilgandra area the population was 4,300 people with 96.4% Australian-born, 13.8% identifying as Aboriginal, and 'Agriculture and Forestry' occupying 28.6% of the area's employed population, the largest single category of employment.