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Brisbane ( (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Its estimated population is 2.5 million as of 2018, while the South East Queensland region, which is centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.5 million. The CBD stands in a peninsula on the Brisbane River, located 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the flood plain of the Brisbane river valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range, sprawling across several of Australia’s most populous local government areas (LGAs), including the City of Brisbane, which is the most populous LGA in Australia, as well as Moreton Bay Region, Logan City, City of Ipswich, and Redland City. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite".
One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane’s origins began with the Moreton Bay penal settlement, founded by the British Empire as a place for secondary offenders from Sydney. For a short period the settlement was known as Edenglassie, before being renamed after the river in which it stood-which in turn was named after the governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane. Initially free settlement was prohibited within 50 miles (80 km) of the penal colony. However a German missionary settlement was permitted at Zions Hill in 1838. Following the official closure of the penal colony in 1839, Brisbane and the surrounding districts were available for free settlement from 1842. Brisbane was designated as the capital of Queensland in 1859. Subsequent development of the city was hampered by disasters like the Great Fire of Brisbane in 1864, and the Great Flood of Brisbane in 1893.