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Brisbane ( (listen) BRIZ-bən) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third-most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population around 2.6 million, and it lies at the centre of the South East Queensland metropolitan region, which encompasses a population around 3.8 million. The Brisbane central business district is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 km (9 mi) from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges. It sprawls across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite", while common nicknames include "Brissy" and "River City".One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the traditional lands of the Turrbal people, who named the area Meanjin. The city is named for the Brisbane River on which it stands, which is in turn named for Sir Thomas Brisbane, the governor of New South Wales at the time of the city's founding. The Moreton Bay penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe as a place for secondary offenders from the Sydney colony, and soon moved to North Quay in 1825, opening to free settlement in 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a central role in the Allied campaign and served as the South West Pacific headquarters for United States Army General Douglas MacArthur.A diverse city with 32.2% of its metropolitan population being foreign born, Brisbane is classified as a global city (Beta +), and ranks highly in ratings of liveable cities.
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