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Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region, Queensland, Australia. The estimated urban population of Rockhampton in June 2015 was 80,665, making it the fourth largest city in the state outside of the cities of South East Queensland. and the twenty-second largest city in Australia.
Rockhampton is one of the oldest cities in Queensland, and in Northern Australia. In 1853, Charles and William Archer discovered the Fitzroy River, which they named in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy. The Archer brothers took up a run near Gracemere in 1855, and more settlers arrived soon after enticed by the fertile valleys. The town of Rockhampton was proclaimed in 1858, and surveyed by Arthur F Wood and Francis Clarke, the chosen street design closely resembled the Hoddle Grid in Melbourne and consisted of a grid of wide boulevards and laneways which was uncommon in Queensland.
Within the year gold was found at Canoona, and led to the first North Australian gold rush. This led to an influx of migrants that quickly transformed Rockhampton into the second largest port in the state. It was during this period that Rockhampton was nicknamed as the "City of the Three S's", of which were "Sin, Sweat, and Sorrow". Subsequent gold rushes at Mount Morgan Mine which was at the time one of the most productive gold mines in the world, laid the foundations for much of the city's Victorian architecture.
Today, Rockhampton is an industrial and agricultural centre of the north, and is the regional centre of Central Queensland.