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Launceston ( (listen)) is a city in the north of Tasmania, Australia, at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River (kanamaluka). Launceston has a population of 110,472 in the significant urban area. Launceston is the second most populous city in Tasmania after the state capital, Hobart, As of 2020, Launceston is third-largest inland city in Australia and the 17th largest city in Australia.Settled by Europeans in March 1806, Launceston is one of Australia's oldest cities and it has many historic buildings. Like many places in Australia, it was named after a town in the United Kingdom – in this case, Launceston, Cornwall. Launceston also had the first use of anaesthetic in the Southern Hemisphere, it was the first Australian city to have underground sewers, and it was the first Australian city to be lit by hydroelectricity. The city has a maritime climate with four distinct seasons and is sizeably warmer than the south of the island during summer. Local government is split between the City of Launceston and the Meander Valley and West Tamar Councils.
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