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Leonora is a town in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia, located 833 kilometres (518 mi) northeast of the state capital, Perth, and 237 kilometres (147 mi) north of the city of Kalgoorlie.
At the 2016 census, Leonora had a population of 556, 27.6% of which were of Aboriginal descent. The area has a semi-arid climate, with a mean annual rainfall of 233 millimetres (9 in). Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 18 °C (64 °F) for July to 37 °C (99 °F) for January.
Leonora is primarily a mining town. There are a number of major gold mines in the Shire, as well as the Murrin Murin laterite nickel project. The area supports a significant pastoral industry.
The first European explorer was John Forrest, who visited the area in 1869. On 21 June 1869 Forrest's party made camp near a conspicuous hill, which Forrest named Mount Leonora, after his six-year-old niece Frances (Fanny) Leonora Hardey. In 1895, gold was discovered in the area by prospector Edward 'Doodah' Sullivan at the Johannesburg lease just north of the current townsite. In the following two years a number of rich finds resulted in rapid development of the area. The Sons of Gwalia gold mine brought Leonora to the attention of the world. By 1897 a residential and business area had been established, and the town was gazetted as Leonora.
Leonora had a single track passenger tramway linking the town and nearby Gwalia, from 1901 to 1921. Initially steam driven, the service was electric from November 1908, and petrol powered from 1915.
A reverse osmosis desalination treatment plant was opened in October 2005 to improve the quality of the town's water supply from the Station Creek wellfield by reducing the naturally occurring high levels of salinity, nitrate and hardness.